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Many Muslims who chose to remain in India have close family members who moved to Pakistan and some Hindus remained behind in Pakistan, ensuring an intertwined destiny for the two countries.
After the death of Jinnah, Pakistan was ruled by a series of army chiefs under what were called martial law regimes.
The Indian National Congress, the political party that eventually led India to its independence, had many devoted Muslim members who were willing to give up their lives for the cause of India's freedom. Gandhi's movement of satyagraha, or non-violent passive resistance in the face of British oppression, formed the key to India's response to British colonization and gave shape to the drive for independence.
Hundreds of thousands of Indians, both Hindu and Muslim, refused to cooperate with their British colonizers on every level of daily life—from the social to the political to the economic.
However, there are also ties of a shared history and culture that bind the people of the two countries.
Because Jinnah feared political, social, and cultural subordination to the Hindu majority, he started a movement to establish a separate state based on Islam for the Indian Muslims.
This group felt that in order to be truly free, Indian Muslims needed their own homeland.
They include tribes on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan, although the community has become increasingly urbanized in recent years.
The Punjabi community is the center of education and industry in Pakistan and includes both rural and urban segments within it.