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The destiny of Christianity in those areas was shaped by the transfer in 320 AD of the imperial capital from (Old) Rome to (New "Rome") Constantinople by Constantine I.As a consequence, during the first Eight Centuries of Church history, most major cultural, intellectual, and social developments in the Christian church also took place in that region; for instance, all ecumenical councils of that period met either in, or near Constantinople.This difference explains the various incidents that grew into a serious estrangement.One of the most vehement disputes concerned the filioque clause of the Nicene Creed, which the Western church added unilaterally to the original text. The first major breach came in the Ninth century when the Pope refused to recognize the election of Photius as patriarch of Constantinople.Throughout history, various heresies have afflicted the Church, and at those times the Church makes dogmatic pronouncements (especially at ecumenical councils) delineating in new language what has always been believed by the Church, thus preventing the spread of heresy and calling to repentance those who rend asunder the Body of Christ.Its primary statement of faith is the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.Photius in turn challenged the right of the papacy to rule on the matter and denounced the filioque clause as a Western innovation.
Only since the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) has the movement reversed, talks are bringing serious attempts at mutual understanding.
Since the 1930s, the prevailing theory concerning the peopling of the New World is that the first human inhabitants were the Clovis people, who are thought to have appeared approximately 13,500 years ago.
The Orthodox Church is the one Church founded by Jesus Christ and his apostles, begun at the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit in the year 33 A. It is also known (especially in the contemporary West) as the Eastern Orthodox Church or the Greek Orthodox Church.
As with its Apostolic succession, the faith held by the Church is that which was handed by Christ to the apostles.
Nothing is added to or subtracted from that deposit of faith which was "handed once for all to the saints" (Jude 3).