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This toponym stems from the Curonians, one of the Baltic indigenous tribes.
Following the annexation of Courland the two other governates were renamed to the Governorate of Livland and the Governorate of Estland.
The rulers of different regions within Livonia sought to ally with foreign powers, which resulted in Polish–Lithuanian, Swedish and Danish involvement.
As a result, by 1561 the Livonian confederation had ceased to exist and its lands in modern Latvia and Southern Estonia became the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and the Duchy of Livonia, which were vassals to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Osel island came under Danish rule and Northern Estonia became the Swedish Duchy of Estonia.
The majority of the crusaders and clergy were German and remained influential in Estonia and most of Latvia until the first half of the 20th century – Baltic Germans formed the backbone of the local gentry, and German served both as a lingua franca and for record-keeping.
The Lithuanians were also targeted by the crusaders, however they were able to resist and formed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania some time before 1252. After the Union of Krewo in 1385 created a dynastic union between the two countries, they became ever more closely integrated and finally merged into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.
After victory in the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, the Polish–Lithuanian union became a major political power in the region.
All three countries are members of the European Union, NATO and the Eurozone.After the Brothers of the Sword suffered defeat at the Battle of Saule, the remaining Brothers were integrated into the Teutonic Order as the autonomous Livonian Order.Northern Estonia initially became a Danish dominion, but it was purchased by the Teutonic Order in the mid-14th century.In the aftermath of the Livonian crusade, a crusader state officially named Terra Mariana, but also known as Livonia, was established in the territory of modern Latvia and Southern Estonia.It was divided into four autonomous bishoprics and lands of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.